The T-Formation creates a T-shape. It can be flown with three, four, five, or six aircraft. However, there is a significant difference between a T-Formation with three aircraft and a T-Formation with more than three aircraft, as you can see on the two schematics above.

With three planes, the leader will fly either front-right or front-left. To tell the other two pilots which side he wants them on, he will call “Left-hand T-Formation” or “Right-hand T-Formation” over the radio. When flying with more than three aircraft, the leader will always fly in the middle. He will then simply call “T-Formation” without a left-right indication.

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